USA 1-800-227-2862 (BBRAUN2)



1. Gadsden JC, Choi JJ, Lin E, Robinson A: Opening Injection Pressure Consistently Detects Needle–Nerve Contact during Ultrasound-guided Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block: Anesthesiology 2014; 120:1246–53

2. Buhre W, Rossaint R: Perioperative management and monitoring in anaesthesia. Lancet 2003; 362:1839–46

3. Sites BD, Taenzer AH, Herrick MD, Gilloon C, Antonakakis J, Richins J, Beach ML: Incidence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity and postoperative neurologic symptoms associated with 12,668 ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: an analysis from a prospective clinical registry. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2012; 37:478–82

4. Liu SS, YaDeau JT, Shaw PM, Wilfred S, Shetty T, Gordon M: Incidence of unintentional intraneural injection and postoperative neurological complications with ultrasound-guided interscalene and supraclavicular nerve blocks. Anaesthesia 2011; 66:168–74

5. Bilbao Ares A, Sabaté A, Porteiro L, Ibáñez B, Koo M, Pi A: [Neurological complications associated with ultrasound-guided interscalene and supraclavicular block in elective surgery of the shoulder and arm. Prospective observational study in a university hospital.]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim 2013doi:10.1016/j.redar.2013.02.016

6. Widmer B, Lustig S, Scholes CJ, Molloy A, Leo SPM, Coolican MRJ, Parker DA: Incidence and severity of complications due to femoral nerve blocks performed for knee surgery. Knee 2013; 20:181–5

7. Gadsden J, Gratenstein K, Hadzic A: Intraneural Injection and Peripheral Nerve Injury: International Anesthesiology Clinics 2010; 48:107–15

8. Hogan QH: Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury during regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2008; 33:435–41

9. Selander D, Brattsand R, Lundborg G, Nordborg C, Olsson Y. Local anesthetics: importance of mode of application, concentration and adrenaline for the appearance of nerve lesions. An experimental study of axonal degeneration and barrier damage after intrafascicular injection or topical application of bupivacaine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1979; 23(2): 127-136.

10.Gentili F, Hudson AR, Hunter D, Kline DG. Nerve injection injury with local anesthetic agents: a light and electron microscopic, fluorescent microscopic, and horseradish peroxidase study. Neurosurgery. 1980; 6(3): 263-272.

11.Moayeri N, Groen GJ. Differences in quantitative architecture of sciatic nerve may explain differences in potential vulnerability to nerve injury, onset time, and minimum effective anesthetic volume. Anesthesiology. 2009l 111(5):1128-1134.

12.Liu SS, Zays VM, Gordon MA, et al. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing ultrasound versus nerve stimulator guidance for interscalene block for ambulatory shoulder surgery for postoperative neurological symptoms. Anesth Analg. 2009; 109(1): 265-271.

13.Bigeleisen PE, Nerve puncture and apparent intraneural injection during ultrasound-guided axillary block does not invariably result in a neurologic injury. Anesthesiology. 2006; 105(4): 779-783.

14.Robards C, Hadzic A, Somasundaram L, Iwata T, Gadsden J, Xu D, Sala-Blanch X: Intraneural injection with low-current stimulation during popliteal sciatic nerve block. Anesth. Analg 2009; 109:673–7

15.Cohen JM, Gray AT: Functional deficits after intraneural injection during interscalene block. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010; 35:397–9

16.Sunderland S: The anatomy and physiology of nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 1990; 13:771–84

17.Steinfeldt T, Poeschl S, Nimphius W, Graf J, Zoremba M, Mueller H-H, Wulf H, Dette F: Forced needle advancement during needle-nerve contact in a porcine model: histological outcome. Anesth. Analg. 2011; 113:417–20

18.Farber SJ, Saheb-Al-Zamani M, Zieske L, Laurido-Soto O, Bery A, Hunter D, Johnson P, Mackinnon SE: Peripheral nerve injury after local anesthetic injection. Anesth. Analg. 2013; 117:731–9

19.O’Donnell BD, Iohom G: An Estimation of the Minimum Effective Anesthetic Volume of 2% Lidocaine in Ultrasound-guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Anesthesiology 2009; 111:25–9

20.Riazi S, Carmichael N, Awad I, Holtby RM, McCartney CJL: Effect of local anaesthetic volume (20 vs 5 ml) on the efficacy and respiratory consequences of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block. Br J Anaesth 2008; 101:549–56

21.Vandepitte C, Gautier P, Xu D, Salviz EA, Hadzic A: Effective Volume of Ropivacaine 0.75% through a Catheter Required for Interscalene Brachial Plexus Blockade: Anesthesiology 2013; 118:863–7

22.Sites BD, Spence BC, Gallagher JD, Wiley CW, Bertrand ML, Blike GT: Characterizing novice behavior associated with learning ultrasound-guided peripheral regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2007; 32:107–15

23.Krediet AC, Moayeri N, Bleys RLAW, Groen GJ: Intraneural or Extraneural: Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound Assessment for Localizing Low-Volume Injection. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2014; 39:409-15

24.Selander D, Dhunér KG, Lundborg G: Peripheral nerve injury due to injection needles used for regional anesthesia. An experimental study of the acute effects of needle point trauma. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1977; 21:182–8

25.Voelckel WG, Klima G, Krismer AC, Haslinger C, Stadlbauer KH, Wenzel V, Goedecke A von: Signs of inflammation after sciatic nerve block in pigs. Anesth. Analg 2005; 101:1844–6

26.Tsai T, Vuckovic I, Dilbervic F, Obhodzas M, Kapur E, Diavanovic K, Hadzic A: Intensity of the Stimulating Current may not be a reliable indicator of intraneural needle placement. RAPM 2008; 33: 207-210.

27.Bigeleisen PE, Moayeri N, Groen GJ: Extraneural versus intraneural stimulation thresholds during ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block. Anesthesiology 2009; 110:1235–43

28.Wiesmann T, Bornträger A, Vassiliou T, Hadzic A, Wulf H, Müller H-H, Steinfeldt T: Minimal Current Intensity to Elicit an Evoked Motor Response Cannot Discern Between Needle-Nerve Contact and Intraneural Needle Insertion: Anesthesia & Analgesia 2014; 118:681–6

29.Claudio R, Hadzic A, Shih H, Vloka JD, Castro J, Koscielniak-Nielsen Z, Thys DM, Santos AC: Injection pressures by anesthesiologists during simulated peripheral nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29:201–5

30.Theron PS, Mackay Z, Gonzalez JG, Donaldson N, Blanco R: An animal model of “syringe feel” during peripheral nerve block. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2009; 34:330–2

31.Hadzic A, Dilberovic F, Shah S, Kulenovic A, Kapur E, Zaciragic A, Cosovic E, Vuckovic I, Divanovic K-A, Mornjakovic Z, Thys DM, Santos AC: Combination of intraneural injection and high injection pressure leads to fascicular injury and neurologic deficits in dogs. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29:417–23

32.Billings BH et a. : Fundamental concepts of mechanics. In American institute of physics.3rd edition. Edited by Gray DE. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1972, pp 2-14.

33.Marchioro C et al: Conservation laws. In Mathematical theory of incompressible nonviscous fluids. Edited by John F, Marsden JE, Sirovich L. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1994, pp 24-5.